Article by : Sadagopan Iyengar Swami, Coimbatore
We have heard of Birds of Prey, like vultures, owls, eagles, etc. However, have you heard of a Bird of Peace? Puzzled? Well, there is indeed a bird which symbolizes peace and harmony. Whenever the word Peace is mentioned, you tend to think of the Dove, which has over the years come to be considered as the personification of Peace. The world over, this bird is regarded as being synonymous with harmony and tranquility. We do not know exactly what has given this aura of peacefulness to this rather commonplace bird? it could perhaps be its non-aggressive and cohabiting nature.
I am hardly an ornithologist to hold forth expertly on the Dove. However, a perusal of our Scriptures convinces me that the Dove is not only a Bird of Peace– it is also a Symbol of Saranaagati. Just as peace and harmony bring the Dove to our mind, so too, for Sri Vaishnavas, the mere mention of Saranaagati or Prapatti is enough to conjure up a vision of the beautiful bird. If you find this hard to believe, then do read on and find out for yourself.
Sri Rama is generally not regarded as a story-teller of any repute. You are able to picture the ebullient and enthralling Sri Krishna regaling His friends and Gopis with amusing tales, but somehow your imagination baulks at the prospect of the serious, straight-forward and sombre Sri Rama resorting to story-telling. However, Sri Valmiki does portray Sri Rama as telling tales to His friends of the monkey kingdom, not for entertaining them, but for their education and enlightenment. And one such is the Tale of the Dove – the celebrated Kapotha Upaakhyaanam.
Most of the Vaanara veeraas are against admitting Vibhishana into their camp despite his abject surrender at the lotus feet of Sri Raghava. They point out that one who has forsaken his dear brother at a time of crisis would not hesitate to betray his friends anytime. They advance many other arguments against Vibhishana being absorbed into their fold. However, Sri Rama, after affording everyone a patient hearing, comes out with His glorious formulation– whatever be the shortcomings in the Saranaagata, apparent or latent, and however serious they were, it was His (Rama’s) sworn mission to extend succour and protection to anyone who surrendered. And to buttress His view point, He recounts the Tale of the Dove with telling effect
Shrooyate hi kapotena shatru: sharanam aagata:
Architascha yathaa nyaayam svaischa maamsai: nimantrita:
Here, we may observe that Sri Rama doesn’t recount the story in detail, but tells his listeners “You have of course heard of the tale of the Dove”. “Shrooyate hi” says Sri Rama, referring to what must have been a very popular tale. For instance, when referring to the story of the hare and the tortoise, we refer merely to the title of the tale without going into details, for the story is too well-known for recounting. So too, the Tale of the Dove must have been quite famous and commonplace among people, so that Sri Rama had no need to go into details. This is no ordinary old wives’ tale, but one capable of destroying all our sins, says the Itihaasa Samucchayam, attributing the story to Bhaargava Rishi, as told to Muchukunda Maharaja. Swami Desikan too has deemed it fit to comment on this tale, in his Abhaya Pradaana Saaram. Well, here is the story which you must definitely have heard before and which Srimad Mukkur Azhagiasingar used to recount with such moving words in his own inimitable fashion.
This happened in Krita Yugam. There was once a cruel man, who had made sadism and torture a way of life. He used to hunt down innocent animals just for the fun of it, incidentally feeding himself on their flesh and selling whatever he could not consume. He was shunned by all his relatives and lived the life of an outcast, intent on his own bestial pursuits. This man was caught one evening in a flood in the woods he lived in, with rains pouring down in sheets and inundating all available land space and the flood waters rising menacingly to neck height. Even at this time of misery, his sharp eyes espied a beautiful female dove on a tree, apparently searching for food for its loved ones. Immediately, he felled the bird with a stone and carried it with him for later use. Drenched to the skin, shivering with cold, terrified of the rising waters and the all-encompassing darkness, he made his way somehow to a small bit of dry land beneath a broad tree on a hillock and took shelter thereunder. In a short while, the rain stopped, the floods receded, the clouds dispersed and the moon and stars peeked out. His body racked by fever and discomfort, hunger gnawing at his insides, the hunter feared he would pass away there and then. At this moment of crisis, it struck to him to appeal to the deities of the woods (Vana Devata) for protection and succour and he did so in desperation, prompted by fear for his life.
The tree under which the man had sheltered happened to be the home of the fallen female dove, whose mate had been anxiously awaiting its return. The male dove atop the tree suffered in pain when it saw its beloved wife in the hunter’s net. The captive dove, however, consoled its husband and pointed out to the priority of protecting the hunter, who had sought their tree home as a refuge. Admiring the thought processes of its wife which were rooted in Dharma despite its being in mortal danger, the male dove flew near the hunter and asked him what he needed. Too cold even to reply, the hunter, through his shivering gestures, indicated that he was extremely cold and in need of warming up. The male dove flew away in search of dry twigs and leaves, found them after considerable difficulty, gathered them near the hunter, flew again to where a camp fire was burning and brought a lighted twig, with which it made a fire. Having relieved the hunter of his numbing cold, the dove asked him what more he needed. The hunter replied that he was being consumed by hunger. The male dove regretted its inability to feed the man who had sought succour from it. Had it been a human being, it would have had the requisite ingredients for cooking a meal for the refugee. Then a thought struck the dove, which realized that the hunter was a meat-eater. Immediately, it circled the fire thrice and fell in it voluntarily, so that its cooked flesh could satisfy the hunter’s hunger.
Put to shame by this extreme sacrifice on the part of a mere bird, the hunter could not bring himself to eat the dove’s flesh. Instantaneously, he gave up all his cruelty and bestiality and turned into a real human being, inspired by the conduct of the principled dove. As a mark of his having turned over a new leaf, he immediately set free the captured female dove, seeking its pardon. The freed dove thanked the hunter, however, too devoted to its mate to survive its death, the female dove too jumped into the fire and gave up its life. Immediately, there materialized from nowhere an air-borne vehicle, fully decorated, in which the male dove was already ensconced. The female dove joined its partner with a divine body and both ascended to heaven as the direct result of the supreme sacrifice they had performed in protecting one who had sought refuge.
This, then, is the Tale of the Dove recounted by Sri Rama to His listeners on the shores of Tiruppullaani, putting an end to the debate on whether or not to admit Vibheeshana to their camp. When a mere bird could give up its life for protecting a Sharanaagata, could a Prince of the exalted Ikshvaaku dynasty refuse to provide refuge to one who has surrendered?? enquired Sri Raghava, reiterating that it was His life’s mission to offer succour to Sharanaagataas “Abhayam sarva bhootebhya: dadaami, etat vratam mama”.
The Tale of the Dove is so famous that it is narrated in detail in Sri Mahabharatam too, in the Shanti Parva, with Bhishma recounting the legend to Yudhishttira. There too, the popularity of the tale is emphasized with the words, ‘Shrooyate hi’. And, coincidentally, the tale begins with the same sloka as in Srimad Ramayanam, with not a word different
Shrooyate hi kapothena shatru: sharanam aagata:
poojitascha yathaa nyaayam svaischa maamsai: nimantrita:
It is indeed surprising that the same sloka appears in both the Epics, with absolutely no change whatsoever. Just as the Purusha Suktam (which establishes the identity of the Ultimate) is found in all the four Vedas, the Tale of the Dove too is so significant in laying down the inviolable code of protecting those who surrender, that it appears in both the Epics, with verbatim repetitions as to letter and spirit.
We saw how a Dove afforded refuge to a Saranaagata. The Mahabharata tells us a story, in which the roles are reversed and a Dove dons the role of a Saranaagata, seeking protection. The great Lomasa Maharshi narrates this tale to Yudhishttira.
Emperor Shibi was renowned for his righteousness. He ruled over his empire with Dharma as the guiding factor, toeing the straight but narrow path of Satyam and Dharmam. Such was his sense of fairness and justice that his fame spread not only on earth, but in the heavens too.
Once, when the Emperor was performing a sacrifice in the midst of the rivers Jala and Upajala near Yamuna, a dove flew in from the skies, landing on his lap and seeking protection from a pursuing vulture. As would any right-thinking person conversant with Dharma, the Emperor immediately provided refuge to the beleaguered dove. As testimony to the fact that even birds of those days were conscious of right conduct, the vulture told the Emperor that he was acting contrary to justice by denying it of its rightful food. The vulture had identified the dove as its food for the day, pursued it across the skies and just when it was closing in for the kill, the Emperor had afforded it protection. The vulture hence appealed to the Emperor that by saving the dove, he was not treading the path of Dharma, but actually straying from it. The Emperor responded by pointing out that Saranaagata Rakshanam was the paramount duty of every one, so much so that abandoning a Saranaagata was a cardinal sin, equal to the killing of a cow or a Brahmin.
After a protracted argument with the Emperor, the vulture challenged him thus “If you are so firm on saving the dove, if you consider yourself so right-minded, are you prepared to cut off your own flesh and let me feed on it” I would be satisfied with your flesh to the extent of the dove’s weight. That way, I would not be denied of my food, you would have the satisfaction of having saved the so-called Saranagata and the dove too would be spared its life. This is an eminently just solution, fair to all parties concerned’.
Having said this, the vulture stood facing the Emperor with a cynical smile, confident that the Emperor would definitely not consider sacrificing his own flesh for saving a mere dove. However, Shibi did not hesitate even a second and ordered a pair of scales to be brought. On one side of the scales, he placed the dove: he cut off flesh from his thigh and placed it on the other side. Even after two or three such installments of meat from his body, the Emperor found to his surprise that the dove outweighed the parcels of flesh. Ultimately, when the bleeding Emperor found that the bits and pieces of meat from his body could not equal the dove’s weight, he put himself on the scales, offering his entire body as food for the vulture, in a gesture of supreme sacrifice in the cause of Saranaagata Rakshanam.
It was then that the vulture and dove took their real forms, the former becoming Indra and the latter, Agni. The gods told Emperor Shibi that they had enacted the drama to test his devotion to Dharma. They praised him for his righteousness and left after granting him several boons.
The Bhaagavata Puranam too has a place for the Dove, not a complimentary tale as aforesaid, but one which demonstrates the need to avoid excessive attachment, be it to one’s wife or children. Emperor Yadu approached a Brahmin for spiritual enlightenment. The preceptor told Yadu to learn from the conduct of 24 entities, among which is a Dove. In this instance, the Dove is a model of how not to conduct oneself.
A pair of doves was living happily in a tree nest, so engrossed in each other that they could not stay separate. They were always to be found together, in activity and at rest. In course of time, the birds were blessed with young ones and the doves’ cup of happiness was full. Their attachment to each other and to their children increased multifold by the day and became an obsession. Fate entered the scene in the form of a hunter, who conveniently captured the young doves in his net, when the parents had gone in search of food. Upon its return, the female dove was beside itself in sorrow, finding the children in the hunter’s net. Unable to stand the separation from the offspring, the mother dove voluntarily entered the net, while the male dove, driven to despair by the loss of its young ones and its beloved wife too, gave up its life and fell to the ground. Thanking his stars, the hunter made his way home with the rich catch.
The moral of the tale is this– having taken birth in this world, which is indeed the gateway to the worlds above, if we get ourselves bound hand and foot by the shackles of Samsaaram, getting caught in the quagmire of human relationships which only serve to drag us deeper and deeper into the mundane morass, we would be wasting our birth. The trick is not to develop too much attachment to anything or anyone, while performing the duties enjoined on us by our birth and station in life, thinking all the while of the Paramaatma and praying to Him to deliver us from this world of suffering and sorrow.
Na ati sneha: prasango vaa kartavya: kvaapi kenachit
Kurvan vindeta santaapam Kapotaa iva deena dhee:
If we insist on developing excessive attachment to people and things, we would meet the same fate as the weak-minded doves, says the Bhaagavata Puraanam.
Doves signify a bad omen too, according to the Epics. Doves haunted the houses of Vrishnis and the Andhakas, flapping about their houses, prior to their perishing in battle, we are told by the Mahabharata-
Paanduraa rapaadaascha vihagaa kaala choditaa:
Vrishni andhakaanaaam geheshu Kapotaa vyacharans tadaa
In another instance of verbatim reproduction of Ramayana slokas in Mahabharatam, we find the first half of the aforesaid slokam in Ramayanam too, describing the flight of doves over the heads of raakshasaas, as harbingers of death
Paanduraa rapaadaascha vihagaa kaala choditaa:
Raakshasaanaam vinaasaaya Kapotaa vicharanti cha
To Dharmaputra, a lot of bad omens appear when Sri Krishna leaves His mortal coils. One of them is the Dove, which Yudhishttitra considers to be a messenger of death, making his heart tremble
Mrityu doota: kapota: ayam ulooka: kampayan mana:
Compared to the human birth, the Dove’s is indeed low on the totem pole of the Lord’s creation. In fact, birth as a Dove may well be the result of sin, says the Mahabharata. Brihaspati, while narrating to Dharmaputra the various lowly births attained by sinners, says that those who steal silver articles are born as Doves
Kaansyam hritvaa tu durbuddhi: haarito jaayate nara:
Raajatam bhaajanam hritvaa Kapota: samprajaayate
The Dove, Vulture, Bees and similar creatures come in for adverse mention, again in Mahabharatam, as bearers of bad news and ill luck
Uddeepakaascha gridhraascha kapotaa bhramaraa: tathaa
Niviseyu: yadaa tatra shaantimeva tadaacharet
Amangalyaani cha etaani tathaakroso mahaatmanaam
We shall conclude the Tale of the Dove on a positive note. By sacrificing its own life for saving that of the hunter, the Dove earned immortality and fame. Not only did its exemplary conduct serve as inspiration for such exalted entities like Sri Rama and Yudhishttira? the hunter who was saved by the Dove gave up all his beastly traits, turned over a new leaf and attained higher worlds by adhering to Dharma, taking a leaf out of the Dove’s book. Here is Srimad Bhaagavatam, eulogizing not only the Dove but also the hunter, by placing them in the exalted company of mahaatmaas like Harischandra, Ranti Deva, Emperors Shibi and Mahabali, for having used their perishable bodies effectively to earn everlasting fame
Harischandra: Ranti deva: Uncchavritti: Shibi: Bali:
Vyaadha: Kapota: bahava: adhruvena druvam gataa:
Srimate SriLakshmiNrisimha divya paduka sevaka SrivanSatakopa Sri Narayana Yatindra Mahadesikaya nama:
Article by : Sadagopan Iyengar Swami, Coimbatore