Ramanuja Nutranthathi – 46

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விளக்கவுரை:

இந்த உடலே ஆத்மா என்றும், உடல் பரிணாமமே ஆத்மா என்றும், அணுவே ஆத்மா என்றும், ஞானம் மட்டுமே உள்ளது என்றும், சூன்யம் மட்டுமே உண்மை என்றும், ப்ரஹ்மம் என்பது குணங்கள் அற்றது என்றும், ப்ரஹ்மம் முதலான பலவும் மித்யா (பொய்) என்றும், ருத்ரனே பரமாத்மா என்றும் – பல்வேறு தாழ்வான, உண்மையற்ற கருத்துக்கள் கூறிய மதங்கள் அனைத்தும் நாசம் அடைந்தன. எப்போது? இந்த உலகத்தில், மயர்வறு மதிநலம் அருளப்பெற்ற ஆழ்வார்கள் அவதாரம் செய்த காரணத்தால் புண்ணியம் அடைந்த உலகில், நம்மாழ்வாரால் அருளிச் செய்யப்பட்ட தமிழ் வேதத்தை அறிந்து, பரிபூர்ண ஞானம் பெற்ற எம்பெருமானாரின் வாதங்களால் ஆகும். அனைத்துத் திசைகளிலும் பரவிய தனது திருக்கல்யாண குணங்களால் புகழ் பெற்ற எம்பெருமானார், சிறிதும் ஞானம் இல்லாத எனது இதயத்தில் வந்து புகுந்து கொண்டார். இப்படியாக இவர் செய்த உபகாரத்திற்கு ஏற்ற கைம்மாறு தெரியாமல், அவரது திருவடிகளிலே பணிந்தேன்.

Amudhanaar’s enjoyment of Ramanuja’s immersing himself in Thiruvaymozhi and says we are blessed to have taken refuge at His Feet.

Meaning:

Emperumaanaar – Sri Ramanujacharya studied Thiruvaaymozhi of NammAzhwAr, which by its rich and deep narration of Vedic truths, chased away and destroyed completely the other six religions, (that could survive only by a mere play of words and logic with no examples or proofs, pramaaNams and clarifications of their contradictions).

What Sri Ramanuja did to me is this: Since I do not have the required jn~Anam nor the capacity to grasp the same, He simply resided in my heart as the means and the end for me to take refuge at His Lotus feet and be saved. I simply lost to His greatest KalyANa guNAs of such merciful Nature of YathirAjar, and my obeisance to Him.

Saankhyam, Yogam, tharkkam, bhouddha, Jainam, pAsupatham are the six religions as enlisted and rejected by Vyasa as non-vedic in Brhamasoothram. Reference to these six religions are mentioned in Nammaazhwaar Thiruvaymozhi as well.

What are these six religions mentioned in Thiruvaaymozhi? [extract from Sri Satakopan Swami’s write up:] ThiruvAimozhi Paasuram: 4. 10. 5]

viLampumARu samayumum avaiyAhium maRRUm tanpAl
aLanthu kaaNdaRkariyanAhiya Aadhip pirAnamarum
vaLamkoLL taNNpaNai soozhnthu azhahAya Thirukkukuranai
uLamkoLL jn~Anathtu vaimin ummai uyyak koNDu pORilE

(Meaning): There are six systems religion ranging from totally Vedic to those with different degrees of connection to the VedAs. He became these religions and others, which declare themselves to be based on the VedAs, but are misguided (Kudhrushti mathams). They shout in shrill tones of logic and get hoarse. None of them can however surpass the greatness of Lord AdhippirAn, who presides over ThirukkuruhUr known for its shady groves. Hold Him (AadhippirAn) deep in Your heart before the external senses ambush you and make you go astray. Holding Him tightly would be the only way to secure your salvation.

The six darsanams that NammAzhwAr refers to here have been counted in number of ways to add up to a total of Six:

(1) The six religions listed by AchArya RaamAnujA are Bhouddham, ChArvAkam, NaiyAyka-VaisEshikams of GouthamA, Jainam, Saankhyam and Yogam. These six are also known as Saakhya, ulUkhya, AkshapAtha,KshapaNa, Kapila and Pathanjali darsanams based on the people, who developed them or wrote commentaries.

(2) In another counting, these six are recognized as Saankhyam, Yogam, Bhouddham, VaisEshikam, Jainam and Paasupatham.

(3) In yet another counting, these six are: ChArvAkam, Jainam and four types of Bhouddham (VaibhAshikam and SautrAntikam of HeenayAnam and yOgAchAram and nihilism of MahAyAnam sects).

The various darsanams listed above fall into the categories of Naasthika and Aasthika darsanams. The Naasthika darsanams like ChArvAkam (materialistic atheism), Buddhism and Jainism are systems of thought that do not accept the authority of the VedAs and deny the tattvams such as Soul (Jevan) and God (Isvaran), which Aasthika mathams accept as fundamental to their beliefs. Naasthika mathams are called Veda Baahya mathams and the Aasthika Mathams are saluted as Vaidhika Mathams.

The six Aasthika mathams are: NyAya, VaisEshika, Saankhya, Yoga, MimAmsa and VEDHAANTHA darsanams. Around 1000 CE, the NyAyA and vaisEshikA systems came together and became amalgamated into one system. There is not much of a difference between them now.

Even among the set of six Aasthika mathams, there are different degrees of acceptance of the VedAs. NyAya, VaisEshika, Saankhya and YogA have admitted the validity of the VedAs in a tangential way, while staking their claims to be aasthika mathams. The MimAmsA and the VedAnthA are the truly Aasthika mathams.

Swami Desikan describes at great length these darsanams and their deficencies and sufficencies in His Paramatha Bhangam, Tattva muktha kalApam and its commentary, SarvArtha siddhi.

Swami Desikan thoroughly evaluates these darsanams to establish the unimpeachable doctrines of Sri VisihtAdvaidham over all the other darsanams. Among the mathams rooted in VedAntham, there are many such as Adhvaitham of SankarA, Dhvaitham of MaadhvAchArya, VisishtAdhvaitham of Naathamuni- AalavandhAr – RaamAnujA, SuddhAdhvaitham of VallabhAchAryA, BhEdhAbhEdham, DhvaidhAdhvaitham of Nimbarkar et al. Among these VedAthantha darsanams, VisishtAdhvaitham, Dhvaitham, SuddhAdhvaitham and dhvaithAdhvaitham accept a personal God in the form of VISHNU.

In his SathadhUshaNi, Swami Desikan has severely criticized the deficiencies of Adhvaitham with clarity and precision. Swami Desikan dealt in great detail about the untenability of key doctrines of Adhvaitham in one of his magnum opus, Tattva Muktha kalApA and focused on proving the untenability of these Adhvaithic concepts:

(1) NirguNa nirvisEsha Brahmam (2) nature of nescience (avidhyA) (3) anivarchanIyakhyAti (4) AkhaNDArtha Vaadham and (5) Illusory nature of the world.

Swami used the teachings of AchArya RaamAnujA in Sri Bhaashyam and its commentary, Srutha PrakAsikA in constructing his irrefutable arguments.

Swami Desikan went on to correct the misreading of the NyAya and MeemAmsa darsanams that were prevalent and established their compatibility with VisishtAdhvaic doctrines in his Sri Sookthis known as NyAya parisudhdi, NyAya SiddhAnkjanam, SEsvara MeemAmsA. In the first two Sri Sookthis, Swami traveled on the path pointed out by AchArya Naathamuni in his Sri Sookthi, NyAya tattvam. In that classic Sri Sookthi, AchArya Naathamuni recast the NyAyA darsanam to suit the needs of VisishtAdhvaitham.

Swami Desikan refined the presentation of the NyAyA system by AkshapAdhA;in NyAya SiddhAnjanam, Swami Desikan clarified the metaphysical concepts of VaisEshikA system in the light of VisishtAdhvaitham. In SEsvara MimAmsA, Swami Desikan showed that the Poorva MimAmsa SoothrAs of Jaimini is in harmony with the Brahma soothrAs of BaadarAyaNA. He rejected the view that PoorvamimAmsA was opposed to Uttara MimAmsA or VedAnthA.

Swami established that MimAmsA is a unitary Saasthram (Yeka Saasthram) in two parts (Poorva and Uttara). The greatness of the Swami Desikan’s contributions is very evident in the Para matha Bhangam created in front of Sri DevanAtha PerumAL on the banks of Garuda nathi in the environs of ThiriuvahIdhrapuram to defend Sri VisishtAdhvaitham as the soundest among all VedAntha darsanams.

Ramanuja’s lotus feet alone are the means and goal- says Amudhanaar. Did He preach that through Thiruvaaymozhi and other interpretations? He [Ramanuja] did instruct various vedanthic works and Thiruvaymozhi. But to my limited or lack of jnAnam, all that I could understand is: His Feet are the means and goal to me. What Ramanuja actually preached is: Sriya: Pathi Sriman Narayanan lotus feet is the praapyam and praapakam; The way and the Goal. The path and the Destination. For that jnAnam also, His lotus feet are the means and the path. He has performed Saranagathi for me in Acharya nishtai and placed my soul at the feet of Sri Ranganthan. Thus He has burnt all my paapams in a way. “nipuNarukku bharasamarpaNamum aachaarya kruthyam.”

Source:

http://sundarasimham.org/
http://namperumal.wordpress.com/

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