Since the time of Newton, science has claimed that all natural phenomena can be explained in terms of measurable quantities which can be calculated with the help of very simple mathematical laws. This principle of reductionism assumes reality to be very simple. It has the arrogance of claiming that human beings, through their intelligence and senses alone, will ultimately be able to fully understand the nature and origin of all phenomena in the universe. ln-spite of the fact that the principle of reductionism is UNPROVABLE, it has laid down a sort of foundation strategy for scientific research. As scientists achieved one success after another, their faith in the applicability of this approach became stronger and stronger. Yet the acceptance of this principle has lead to extreme disturbing consequences. lt reduces the conscious living entity to a complex mechanism whose consciousness corresponds to nothing more than certain chemical reactions among their molecules.
The SAANKHYA theory holds matter as being the combination of super – subtle mass – units and energy – units. These combinations of mass – units and energy – units are so collocated by their natural tendency into five kinds of infra-atomic potentials that there again by further fresh accretion of mass develop themselves into five kinds of gross matter. The mass-units and the energy units are inseparable from one another and all varieties in matter are due to the unequal aggregation of mass and energy. Thus all mass – units are also conceived as tending to indicate heaviness (guru) or weight. According to the Jains, it is impossible to assert the reality of either matter or qualities to the exclusion of the other. From some point of view matter exists and from other points of view the qualities also exist ; it is not also possible to reduce them to some higher category of reality which alone could be said to be real. Contrary to the general Hindu conception of fire kinds of elements, the Jains speak of each atom as possessing all the four characteristics of touch, taste, colour and smell.
Quite distinct from these atomic theories ofthe Nyaaya-Vaisheshika, – Saankhya-Yoga, the Jains and the Buddhists is another, theory of matter which was as old as any of these and which received a clear utterance about 12th Century AD from Swami Desikan- The Very Incarnate of Lord of Seven Hills, held that there was one Primal matter undifferentiated in itself and part-less. This is sometimes called MAAYA since it could produce a diversified creration, sometimes called PRAKRUTI (matter) for the evolutes that it can produce. lt has been designated as partless in the sense that it is not made up of small parts such as the atoms or the like, but it may still be conceived that it undergoes some kind of changes in some portions of it and other kinds of changes at other portions of it and can differentiate itself by its inherent energy by the will (SANKALPA) of God, into diverse space. According to Swamy Desikan, the real and Brilliant Scientist, the evolution is a complex process proceeding from subtle designs to the physical manifestations of these designs in matter. The progression of descent is from more complex forms to simpler ones. Some of the modem scientist like Robert Broom support the idea of design information being transmitted from a higher source.
Alfred Russell Wallace, who along with Darwin is credited with the formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection, expresses similar thoughts in “THE WORLD OF LIFE” Fritjof Capra’s “THE TAO OF PHYSICS” has already created enough ripple among the scientific community and it remains to be seen how far and long are we going to project the ideas of Swami Desikan in the true perspective to the scientific world as a solution to many mind – boggling problems in modem science.
This article is written by Shri E.S Mukundan, in the year 2000 for Ranganatha Paduka Magazine
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